Director: Manoj Kumar.
Starring: Dilip Kumar (Sanga / Kranti), Manoj Kumar (Bharat / Kranti), Shashi Kapoor (Shakti), Hema Malini (Rajkumari Meenakshi), Shatrughan Sinha (Kareem Khan), Parveen Babi (Sureli), Sarika (Sheetal), Nirupa Roy (Radha), Prem Chopra (Shambhu Singh), Pradeep Kumar (Shamsher Singh), Dheeraj Kumar (Prince Heera), Shashikala (Charumati -- Shakti's Adopted Mother), Madan Puri (Sher Singh), Sulochana Latkar (Rama -- lady found child in the water), Paintal.
an Indian family fights to drive the British out of India circa 1825 to 1875 AD
Spoiler Warning: below is a summary of the entire film.
"'Kranti' is inspired from the martyrs of Indian struggle for freedom during 1825 to 1875, but remained unknown in the pages of history. This film is dedicated to that anonymous revolutionary farmer who took an oath to free the Motherland and lit the torch of 'Kranti'. Who was he?"
A Sikh comes riding up. A woman and then a boy also come riding up. They meet and throw their lit torches upright into the ground. The man tells the boy that he is ready for the motherland, which the British have raped. He says these fields once belonged to them. The woman says today nothing belongs to them, neither the song, nor the fields. Grandfather tells his grandson to listen to this tale of the time when the British were advancing like a horrifying shadow to seize the whole of India.
Flashback. The British were determined to capture Ramgadh. Shambhu Singh, the brother of the King, will come to talk with the British. He tells his brother the King, who comments that Shambhu had made a bad deal, but he will make sure that he keeps his word. He will let the British use his port for some years, but the British ships are not to carry explosives!
British ships use the port, but one day the dock workers find explosives in one of the crates. One of the men is killed handling them. The Indian representative at the port, Sanga, rides his horse to tell His Majesty that the British have not obeyed his orders. He shouts what has happened as he goes up to the King. He grabs at his feet and the King falls forward revealing a knife in his back. The brother of the King says that Sanga killed the King. He is grabbed by the guards.
They start torturing Sanga, who says that only the royal council will decide his fate. Shambhu says that Sanga will say in court only what he wants Sanga to say. He brings forward Sanga's wife and child to make sure of his cooperation. The wife is pregnant with another child and she is struck in the belly by the collaborators with the British.
In public Sanga is tied between two posts and it is declared that Sanga admits his hands are red with the blood of the King. But Sanga shouts it is only his soul that is splattered with Sire's blood. The new King now passes sentence on Sanga and the sentence is death by hanging.
From his jail cell Sanga tells the collaborator with the British that he sold out his motherland. The collaborator just laughs at Sanga and leaves. The traitor, however, left a British pistol on a table. Sanga will use the rope from his bed to get the pistol. The collaborator realizes that he left his pistol on the table and goes back to retrieve it. He sees what Sanga is doing and runs over to throw himself on the table to try to get the pistol. But the pistol is knocked into the air and Sanga grabs it. He shoots his lock open and gets out of his jail cell. The collaborator is able to get to a fencing sword, but Sanga is able to escapes his thrusts and get to a saber. He know breaks the fencing sword in two places. The collaborator rings for the guards. Sanga cuts off the hand that was used to strike his wife in the belly. He is also able to fight the guards successfully and get away. Sanga jumps from the parapets into the water below near a boat. The guards fire a cannon at the boat and it blows up the boat at the first shot. They believe that Sanga is now dead.
Sanga's wife has her baby. The wife wonders where he is, but everyone believes that Sanga is dead. Some of the men who worked with Sanga decide to run away. For this they are caught and the British say they will be punished. The officer in charge says to kill the women and children and the weak because they are not useful as workers. The British soldiers start massacring the people below as they all start running to try and get away from the killings. The wife puts her baby in a basket and floats him away on the water. They catch the mother and figure that the baby is a goner.
A woman who has had trouble giving birth is delivered of a stillborn child. A woman sees the child in the basket and retrieves it. From the insignia on one of the blankets she sees it is a Sanga baby. But she believes the goddess has sent this child for the lady Charumati. Charumati gives the order to tell everybody that she has given birth to a prince. (His name will be Shakti.)
The little boy of Sanga is still alive. His friend Bhima and his family will bring the boy up. Bhima says that Sanga had told him that the boy would be christened Bharat.
Sanga is still alive, but he believes that his family and Bhima have all been killed by the British. He and some of his friends launch a surprise attack on the British and kill a number of them. Sanga kills the British officer that gave the command for the massacre. He then gives the command to seize the British merchant ship. They are able to seize the ship. He and his men swear by the blood of the Indian victims of the massacre that they will use the blood of the martyrs to write the word "Revolution" across the sky. Now all the ships that come back and forth had to deal with Sanga and his men. The world recognized Sanga a a revolutionary leader.
Sanga is told of another rebellion elsewhere against the British. But this rebellion uses a symbol like the one used by Sanga and his men. Sanga says whoever rebels against the British is one of them. The name of the leader of the other rebellion is Karim Khan. He took revenge after the Rani of Jhansi became a martyr. He was caught by the British and will be blown to bits by a cannon tomorrow. The Kranti decide they will save him. Long live the revolution!
Before they kill Karim Khan, his sympathizers delay the execution by asking for prayers to be sung to a goddess. Meanwhile preparations are being made to use British explosives to free Karim. The singer is arrested because the explosives have been spotted. But when the cannon is fired it becomes apparent that it was only filled with flowers and garlands. Another cannon is fired and it contains just flowers. The prayer singer gets away. Karim Khan is freed by the singer, who says his name is Bharat and the place is Kishengadh -- come any time.
Sir Thomas complains to the King the this Kranti person is putting his seal everywhere. The King promises the man will be captured. He appoints his sister's only son, Shakti, to be his new commander. The Prince objects to the appointment of a commander who has not been tested. He sets up a test. Blindfolded he must hit the eye of a target shaped like a fish. If he misses the arrow will go through his own mother's heart. Shakti does hit the eye of the fish-shaped target.
The Prince's uncle, the now one-armed collaborator, says that Shakti will fight while the Prince will reign. He will also reign over two kingdoms because the King of Shivpur has offered his daughter's hand in marriage to the Prince. The Princess will arrive tomorrow morning.
The Princess races her chariot. It hits a stone in the road and is knocked over, throwing the Princess into the bushes alongside the road. The Princess quickly gets up and orders a tent to be set up for her while the wheel is fixed. She tells Darmiyan Singh to go wash his face dirty from the mud thrown up by the chariot.
At a small stream, the daughter of Bhima, Sheetal, asks the daughter of the priest to tell her father to marry her (Sheetal) to Bharat. Darmiyan Singh appears and tries to rape Sheetal. She and her friend resist but he overpowers them. Bharat shows up and fights with the rapist. He gets the better of the criminal, but his men show up to save him. The criminal is so happy to see his men, but Bharat bangs his drum and his men start shooting the soldiers down. The men then show Darmiyan Singh the symbol of the revolution. He is so frightened that he runs away to the Princess to tell her that the bandits have killed most of their troops. The Princess says she will kill the bandits and grabs a pistol. Bharat comes in and she tries to shoot him, but he deflects her pistol and the bullet hits Singh instead. Singh gets on a horse and rides away.
Bharat takes the Princess as his prisoner. The Princess gets the key from the beautiful female jailer, named Sureli, unlocks her cell and gets out. She grabs a saber and starts to leave but is confronted by the jailer. They fight and the jailer wins. Starting to leave the Princess, the Princess grabs a spear and sticks it against the jailer's mid-riff. The jailer knocks the spear away from her body. Bharat arrives and a messenger shouts down that because the Princess is missing, her people have begun to burn the villages. Bharat says that Sureli will go to the palace as the Princess. He tells Sureli not to worry because no one at the palace knows what the real Princess looks like. He says all she has to do as a Princess is be rude and treat people badly.
Sureli does a good job acting the part of a spoiled brat of a princess. She is definitely rude and she even jumps on a very fancy chandelier. She sings and dances for the crowd. Sureli hip butts Sir Thomas. The men seem to like her performance. Shakti is one of those who is charmed by the woman, but so is the prince. Even the one-armed collaborator dances with her.
The British use the Indians as slaves. They makes them crawl along the ground on their stomachs to humiliate them. Anyone not bowing before the British are whipped. The men of the revolution arrive and start throwing knives into the chests of the British and their Indian helpers. Bharat shouts down that from now on all Indians are free. They run from the place of hard labor. Shakti shows up with the British officer in charge of the hard labor slaves. The Brit points out the woman Radha as the one who knows everything about the man known as Kranti. Radha calls Shakti son and he sees she has the symbol of the Sanga on one of her bags that she carries.
Bharat has more troubles with the prima donna Princess. Bhima comes in to tell Bharat that the British are taking many of the great jewels of the kingdom. That really makes Bharat angry. The Princess says that he and his men are just using the symbol of the revolution to bring profits to themselves. So Bharat shows her some of the handiwork of the Brits, such as a man who has had his right forearm and left arm cut off. He shows the Princess a man who was blinded by the British with hot pokers that pierced his eyes. And there's the wife who wanted to throw herself on her husband's funeral pyre. The Brits stopped her and then their soldiers gang-raped her. These atrocities shock and shame the Princess. Bharat leaves her. Now she looks more closely at the revolutionary symbol.
A confrontation looms between Bharat and Shakti. Bharat tells him that those priceless things belonging to the kingdom will not be going to England. The two men fight each other with swords. Bharat wounds Shakti on his arm. Shakti gets the upper hand on Bharat, but is then run over by horses and a chariot. Bharat's men have arrived saying the King's army has run away. Bharat leaves without killing Shakti.
Sanga on his ship learns that a British ship full of revolutionary prisoners will be taken to a place of exile. Sanga vows to prevent it. He confronts the British ship saying he wants the release of all the freedom fighters. The British release the prisoners and start the transfer of the prisoners to Sanga's ship. But as the first prisoner crosses the ropes hand over hand to Sanga's ship, the British officer shoots the prisoner and he falls into the sea. A big fight between the men of the two vessels begins. Sanga is grazed by a bullet on the right leg. Sanga captures the treacherous British officer, but decides to put him in a boat with women and children and let him go. But before letting him go he marks him with the revolutionary symbol on his chest.
When the British officer arrives at court, he shows the mark on his chest. Sir Thomas says they have to divide and rule to win the fight against Bharat. They dress up as revolutionaries and commit atrocities against the common people. They also burn their crops. Sanga is told that Kranti has been committing atrocities against the people. He just can't believe it. Sanga shows up at a local inn and stamps the owner's hand with the seal of the revolution. The man goes to Bahrat to tell him. He says Kranti wants to make a deal. They will face each other behind the old temple.
They accuse each other of having betrayed the revolution. They get angry and start fighting. They are stopped by Shakti who says they were waiting for such a confrontation to take place. They are taken to the palace. The collaborator sees that one of the Krantis is his old nemesis Sanga. He hits Sanga with his iron hand. Sanga, whose head and hands are in stocks, knocks him down with the swing of the stocks. And now Sanga gives a long speech about the dastardly British who have come to steal the motherland. Sir Thomas wants him killed right now, but the collaborator says Sanga will be tortured to death. Sanga is taken away and now Bharat is brought out. The collaborator insults him for awhile and then has him taken out.
The two men, Sanga and Bharat, father and son, are about to be hanged. They put them on swaying boards. The one who goes to sleep will end up hanging the other. For talking they are whipped.
Their supporters plan to save Sanga and Bharat. They will use drugs in their gram to put their opponents to sleep. (Gram is any of several plants, such as the chickpea, used for food.)
The real Princess (as Sereli) sings and dances while selling gram. The singing then switches to the singing of the two men waiting to be hanged. With these distractions the revolutionaries get in place on top of the parapets. They suddenly start firing and cut the rope contraption for the swaying boards and then cut the ropes off the hands of the condemned. The British try to fire a cannon at the two condemned men, but the gunners are shot dead. Sanga climbs up and over the walls. The collaborator shoots Sanga twice. Bhima gets shot and falls from the parapets to the ground. The Princess (really Sureli) sees her father Bhima on the ground. He signals her not to say anything to Shakti. She remains quiet. Bhima dies.
The Prince tells the Princess that her father revolted against the British and the British made their prime minister the new king. Her father was then killed. The Prince and the collaborator get suspicious when they see the Princess cry over Bhima. She jumps on a horse, shoots one of the soldiers and starts to escape. The collaborator grabs a rifle and shoots her in the back. She falls off the horse. She says Kranti, long live the revolution! She dies.
Bahrat is upset. He speaks with the Princess, but she tells him that the Princess died months ago. She says now she is just Minakshi. Minakshi says she has married Bahrat: "Men put vermillion in a girl's hair-parting and wed her. But I've put your blood from the holy emblem of our revolt in mine." Bahrat tells her by doing so, she has put her own life in great danger because of him. She sings a short song.
Bahrat sleeps so Minakshi goes to the lake to bathe. The collaborator is going to have killed some of Bahrat's followers, but Bahrat show up saying that it's he who they want. The collaborator is going to run him through with a sword, but Shakti arrives to tell him that Sir Thomas has ordered all prisoners to be placed on the ship. They will be used to row the ship. As they drive the prisoners to the ship, they are brutally whipped.
Sher Singh is in charge of the rowers. Bahrat tells him that he will not row. Singh knocks him down and Bahrat sees one of the revolutionary leaders, Karim Khan. The revolutionary tells Singh that Bahrat will row too. Also on the boat is Minakshi. She gives water to the rowers. Bahrat is sad to see her reduced to this level. She is about to give Bahrat some water, when Singh forces her up on deck.
Sanga tells his men that they will hoist a flag of revolution on the land.
For talking of revolt Singh starts whipping Karim and Bahrat. Minakshi grabs the whip from him and starts whipping him. Singh grabs the whip out of her hands and he knocks her down. The men shout at Singh for hitting a woman. Minakshi gets up and knees Singh in the groin area and he doubles over in pain. She starts speaking English to him telling him he is a bastard and he ought to apologize to all these men. She also says he's a stain on all Indians. A old man at his oars begs for water. Singh tells Minakshi that he will shoot her if she gives him water. Minakshi goes over to give the man water, but finds that he has died. Karim says they will avenge the death of the man.
The corpse is thrown into the sea. The British commander notices how pretty Minakshi looks. He approaches her, but she backs away from him. He tells Singh that he will see her later. He goes to his cabin and gets out of uniform. Singh whips Minakshi a few times. The commander shouts for Singh to bring her up to his cabin. He shouts down that if she won't come to his cabin, he will kill the rowers. Minakshi decides to go, feeling she has no other choice. Through a crack in the deck Bahrat shouts for her not to do it! Karim also tells her not to go. They would willingly embrace death before they would let her go to the white man.
The commander comes down and tells Singh to bring all the rowers up and one by one they will blow up the rowers. He demands that Bahrat be the first one to be brought up. He is to be bound.
The commander assaults Minakshi in his cabin. She is able to kick him in the groin and get away. The commander shouts to Singh to tie her up.
(Sub-titles now disappear to return a little later.) The commander slaps Singh across the face. In English Singh shouts at himself saying he is a dog, a dog. He throws down his British helmet and picks up an axe. Bahrat and Minakshi sing a song on deck. Singh goes on deck with his hatchet concealed in some wood. The commander slaps him again and the axe falls near Bahrat. He is able to reach the axe with his foot. He then pushes it over to a crack in the deck and it falls down to Karim, who picks it up.
A revolutionary swims out to the ship and climbs on board. He takes out one of the armed sentries. Karim now sneaks on deck. Singh holds a pistol on the commander. A soldier shoots Singh, but is shot in turn and falls into the ocean. The revolutionaries now shoot a number of workers on the ship. Singh falls overboard. More of the rowers come up on deck. The British and their helpers are now made to row the ship and are taunted by an Indian boss.
Shakti and Sanga start sword fighting. Sanga cuts Shakti's blade twice. Now he is without any weapon. Shakti kneels in front of Sanga and tells him to cut off his head. Sanga tells him to go and think about who he serves and when reality sets in, then come and serve Kranti's flag. The collaborator shows up as Sanga and his assistant ride away. The traitor shoots the assistant in the back, killing him. Shakti scolds the collaborator for shooting the man, since Sanga had let him go free.
Thinking Shakti shot and killed his assistant, Sanga vows to kill Shakti.
Shakti's aunt is dying. She calls for him and tells him that the woman who reared him is not his biological mother. The adoptive mother warns the biological mother if she tells Shakti who his real mother is, Shakti will just end up a street urchin. The aunt gives Shakti half of a design. Shakti recognizes it and says he has seen the other half of the design. Auntie tells him that his biological mother is the slave, Radha. Radha cries tears of happiness and relief over the fact that her son is alive! Shakti hears this. He tells his mother how ashamed he feels that he enjoyed riches while she enjoy hard, cruel labor. At first his mother tells Shakti she is not his mother, but then breaks down and tells him the truth.
Shakti is caught by Sanga and his men. Sanga tells his men to hang Shakti. Shakti pushes the men off him and says he can hang himself. Music starts and the men tell Sanga that they can't hang Shakti today because it is a holy day. Sanga goes to the temple, saying it's been a long time since he went last. There he sees his wife. He stares at her. She sees a man staring at her and realizes it's her husband. They come together and hug and then she asks about her elder son. She says that Shakti is their son also. She just found him yesterday, but now Kranti has him. Soldiers come and he has to say goodbye to his wife, but they will meet tomorrow same time, same place.
Suddenly mother sees her son Bahrat with Minakshi. He comes over to his mother. She tells him to give her youngest son back to her. She thinks he is responsible for the abduction. Bahrat says he was on a ship all this time.
Shakti learns that Sanga is his father from the revolutionaries waiting to hang him. Sanga is sad, but says all Indian traitors have to die, even if one of them is his son. Bahrat arrives to countermand that order. He demands that Shakti be released. Karim arrives and also demands the release of Shakti. The English arrive and Kranti soldiers are shot down. They have the Kranti surrounded. They free Shakti from his noose, but Shakti takes the commander's pistols from him and points them at him. He tells the British to go away. They start to leave. He also tells the Kranti leadership to go. They leave.
The British tell the King that they must start arresting every suspicious character in the kingdom, otherwise the rebels will attack the fort.
Bahrat tells his men to gather all their followers. They will attack the fort and the palace tonight!
The family is all together now: Sanga, Radha, Shakti and Bahrat. But for some unknown reason, they do not know as of yet realize that they are all part of one family. Minakshi participates in the celebration by singing and dancing. They all sing the song about Kranti. The celebration is stopped by the arrival of a messenger who says that the English have raided many places and arrested many of the revolutionaries. And now the British are headed here.
The collaborator grabs Radha and throws her to the ground. He then gets Minakshi in a headlock. Radha tells him not to hurt her. Minakshi is pregnant. The collaborator slaps Minakshi knocking her to the ground.
The leadership plans the attack. Shakti is to use the secret passageway at the fort to get inside. He will signal them and Karim will blow the doors with a cannon. Then the revolutionaries will pour in through the gate.
Shakti gets into the fort alright, but he comes up right at the feet of the Prince. The Prince helps him up out of the passageway, but then knocks him down. Minakshi kicks the pistol out of the Prince's hand and Shakti grabs it. Now Minakshi trips the prince and he falls on the ground with Shakti, who holds the pistol to the Prince's head. The soldiers will not shoot for the sake of the Prince. The Prince tells the soldiers to throw down their rifles. They do so and the women pick them up.
Shakti tells the people gathered around the fort to disarm the soldiers. They do so.
The Indian soldiers outside are trapped with huge nets by Kranti so their lives will be spared. Karim prepares to blow the door. Shakti sends him the signal to go ahead. Karim lights the fuse but sees smoke coming out of one of the holes in the old cannon. He places his two hands over the hole and the cannon ball proceeds forward and knocks the fortress door down. Karim is knocked backward by the blast.
The collaborator somehow frees the Prince and takes as hostage Radha and Minakshi. They have a number of Indian soldiers with them. Meanwhile Karim dies from the wounds he suffered from the blowing up of the cannon. Bahrat will attack the cannons on the hill, while Sanga will attack the fort, but the British attack Sanga. He reveals a massive set up of guns that allows him to fire many pistols at once. He brings down a great number of the British cavalry.
The massive cannons open up on the people. Sanga yells to the people coming out from the fort to stand up against the walls to avoid being hit. He himself has to crawl behind a rock for protection for the cannon explosions. A woman friend of his tells him that the collaborator has taken Radha and Minakshi to the palace by a secret path.
Shakti and Sanga ambush the men along the secret path freeing the women. Shakti is going to go after the collaborator and the Prince, while Sanga goes after the King. Sanga kills the soldiers around the King. The King jumps into a passageway in a cave and an iron barred gate comes down and blocks him off from Shanga. Shanga shots his two rifles and the place behind the bars explodes.
The Prince tries to shoot Bahrat in the back, but Shakti shoots the pistol out of his hand. Bahrat and his men shoot the Indian soldiers with the Prince. Shakti calls Bahrat his brother and Bahrat is shocked. Shakti also tells him that the one whom he looks upon as mother, is really his own biological mother. Mother is there and she tells her sons that Minakshi went to be with Sanga. While they confer over family ties, the Prince grabs a rifle and prepares to fire. The Prince shoots Shakti in the back and then the Prince is shot down.
From the cannon fire, death rains down on the people. Sanga puts Minakshi in a wagon and drives her away from there. Cannon explosions appear all around the wagon. Bahrat kills the British commander who tried to rape Minakshi. An explosion kills the horse pulling Sanga and Minakshi. Now Sanga pulls the wagon by himself. Bahrat crosses over a bridge by crossing underneath it, swinging from hand over hand.
Shakti is still alive. He says the soil clotted up his wound. An explosion sets Sanga's clothes on fire. He rolls on the ground until the fire goes out. The wagon is also on fire. He pulls it to the river to put out the flames. Bahrat kills a sentry. Sanga keeps pulling the wagon to get away from the explosions. Radha finally catches up with Sanga. They both can hear the sounds of the new grandchild's crying and go over to check on the baby and Minakshi. Bahrat gets to the top of the parapet. He turns some cannon on the cannons below and opens fire. After silencing them, he fires on the troops crossing over the bridge. The collaborator and the highest ranked British commander fire at Bahrat from a tower position. Bahrat trains his cannon on them and blows the whole top of the tower off. The British commander dies, but the collaborator somehow survives. Bahrat is shot by some troops, who are in turn shot by Shakti. The brothers are united, but Shakti is so weak that he passes out and falls from the parapets to his death on the ground. The collaborator fires a cannon and blows up Bahrat's area.
Bahrat makes it back to Sagna and Radha and his wife and baby. His father hugs Bahrat and finds his back very bloody. He tells his son to go see his wife and son who are in the wagon. Over at the wagon Minakshi holds the baby up so Bahrat can kiss his son's forehead. He tells his wife that he is okay, but she can see his pained facial expressions and his bloody hand. Bahrat tells his mother that he is dying. She hugs him. He says he will be re-born and meet her again. Bahrat dies with the rest of the family watching.
Minaskshi says Bahrat is immortal now, but she is all alone. Sanga says that the little baby is proof that Bahrat did not leave her all alone. He has left her with a soldier in his own place, another Kranti! He holds the child up and says the freedom they could not obtain will be obtained by future generations.
Back to the Present. Bahrat's son tells his mother and grandfather that yes, he will take up the challenge against the British and he will finish the job. The next scene shows him crashing through a window to confront the collaborator. He tells the traitor that he has come for revenge for his father and for all the Indian people he has harmed. Grandfather and mother show up. Sagna says to the collaborator that the son will avenge his father. The son says: "For every new traitor, a Kranti will be born. It's my solemn oath." The collaborator grabs a sword and thinks he's so clever. The son just lops the blade into three parts and then then runs his sword through the entire body of the collaborator/traitor.
The family now shoots down the British flag flying over the fortress. The son shoots an arrow and it lands in the flag holder. At the other end of the arrow is the Kranti flag.
"Kranti's saga of freedom continued in new forms and colors, changed from violence to non-violence, till the country got its freedom. Long live India! Long live the revolution!"
The movie is a good one that pays tribute to those who very early on fought against the British occupation of India. And its a homage to the revolutionary fervor of the Indians who wanted the British out of their country. It's a tale of three generations of one family that fought for Indian independence. And it suggests there is a more or less direct line from this fight to the other fights for Indian independence in future generations. They are all connected.
Spoiler Warning. The movie is more than three hours long. It has some flaws, however. The biggest one is that it's just not believable that the four members of the family even after having been reunited still don't know that all four are related to each other. I just assumed that the four of them realized this when they got back together, so I was a bit confused when the characters' realizations were spread throughout the movie until near the very end.
In the second half, they had to wrap up all these threads of the movie and didn't have time to explains some of the transitions from scene to scene.
These are some big drawbacks, but the movie was entertaining and there are certainly a lot of twist and turns in it.
Patrick Louis Cooney, Ph. D.
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