El presidente (2012)




Director:     Mark Meily.

Starring:     Jorge Estregan (Emilio Aguinaldo)Nora Aunor (Maria Agoncillo),  Christopher De Leon (Antonio Luna),  Cristine Reyes (Hilaria Del Rosario),  Cesar Montano (Andres Bonifacio).

General Emilio Aguinaldo and the First Philippine Republic



Spoiler Warning:

"During the last days of the Spanish Empire and the rise of America as a super power in Asia, one brilliant Filipino general bravely stood his ground and victoriously led the Philippine Revolution.  He was a legendary hero, the power and the glory behind the struggle for freedom and the battle for Philippine independence.  He was the man responsible for the creation of the Philippine flag, national anthem, the Philippine Army and the first Philippine constitution that eventually led to the inauguration of the first democratic republic in Asia.  This is the first true to life story of the first President of the First Philippine Republic.  His name Emilio Aguinaldo."

Aguinaldo writes:  "I am writing these memoirs in the hope of shedding light on the chapters of our history that is in danger of falling into oblivion, to honor all the heroes who have shed their blood, and gave their life for the sake of freedom, sovereignty and independence."


A man signs his name, General Urbano Lacuna.  He is with an armed group of men.  A young man says that they have been waiting for them.  Lacuna says they have traveled a long way.  He says the President will be happy about what they did.  There were ten of them and they killed five men.  The Americans were surveying the land.  They have five American prisoners with them. 

The leaders of the group of Philippine soldiers says the Americans cut off the supply route for the soldiers.   The soldiers need ammunition.  The President says they will send what Gen. Lacuna needs.  The General has made a great sacrifice for the republic.  The President starts asking the two leaders questions about General Lacuna.  It's obvious from their answers that they are lying for Gen. Lacuna doesn't even speak Spanish.  A terrific fire fight breaks out.  General Aguinaldo shoots down a number of the soldiers with the two fake leaders.  The fake prisoners are released and a man stands up to say that he doesn't want anyone killing the General.  He wants the General alive.  In the office it comes down to a stand still and one of the General's aides yells:  "Don't sacrifice your life, Mr. President.  The Philippines needs you."

Flashback.  15 years earlier.  Emilio works as a collector of taxes in rural villages.  His friend Candido accompanies him.  He stops at a place and an old woman comes over to him.  Emilio introduces himself and says he's the new village head here in Binakayan.  [Binakayan is a village near Bacoor Bayon the outskirts of Bacoor City, southwest of Manila on Manila Bay on the northern Island of Luzon.]  He says he is looking for Felipe Nacion.  The woman says Felipe hasn't been home for quite awhile.  Emilio explains then the woman will have to pay the taxes for Felipe or she will be evicted from her home.  She says she has no money to give him.  Emilio says then he will have to be her taxes.  He and Candido start to leave but the lady wants to read his palm.  She tells him he will live a long life, will have many enemies for what he stands for, but many will also love him.  Emilio will love three women in his lifetime, but he will only marry two of them.  The woman he will love the most, he cannot bring to the altar.  Candido now asks the woman for his fortune.  She tells him he will die from one bullet with Miong (Emilio) standing by his side.  She now turns to Emilio and says he will be king of a kingdom that he will not reign over.  Furthermore, he should make sure his rivals don't die or their blood will flood the kingdom. 

March 14, 1875.  Manila.  Emilio of Cavite Viejo is being given a final test for his initiation.  He is ordered to kill a traitor.  They bring out the traitor and Emilio stabs the traitor.  But it was a sack filled with something rather than the actual man.  He is now a full pledge member of the Highest Most Honorable Society of the Sons of the Nation, The Katipunan.  Emilio is now asked what does he want to be called in the society.  He says:  "Magdalo, sire.  From St. Mary Magdalene."  The initiator says it's an honor to have Emilio in the society.  "As municipal captain, your contribution to the revolution against Spain will be invaluable."

Emilio may be a municipal captain, but he gets no respect from a Spaniard who wants to know where his carriage is.  Emilio tells one of his men to get the carriage for Lt. Chacon.  He then goes in to lead a discussion on municipal business.  A little later Lt. Chacon bursts into the meeting and wants to know where is his carriage?  Emilio gets him to take off his hat before the presence of the portrait of the Queen Regent, Maria Christina.  Emilio now calls for one of his men to deal with Lt. Chacon, but the Lieutenant still says he's going to keeping his eye on Emilio.  

At night a group of Spaniards and Filipinos meet.  One man says that they can't just sit and wait for an insurrection.  And besides, says Father Agustin, the Katipunan organization is more violent than even the masons.  Lt. Chacon is there at the meeting.  And so is Emilio.  Chacon wants to get some of the masons together and threaten them with jail time for them and their families if they don't give up the names of the men who in in the Katipunan organization.  Emilio says there is no sure way of knowing if the names are valid or not.  Chacon now suggests that perhaps Aguinaldo himself is a mason or a Katipunan. 

Emilo tells his associates that he just came from a meeting at the convent with Father Agustin and Gen. Escaluche, among others.  They know about the Katipunan in Manila.  Furthermore, the Supremo wants to attack Manila.  No one here in Cavite should get caught.  And Lt. Chacon wants to interrogate all the rich and educated men.  This includes Emilio's closest associates.  One associate tells Miong that he should hide in the mountains, but Emilio says they should stay in Cavite. 

A baby is being baptized and Father Agustin is causing a lot of noise.  One associate, Luis Aguado, goes to check on the noise and finds the Father beating an altar boy with some blunt object.  He tells the Father to please be quiet. 

At the party after the baptism, Lt. Chacon shows up with two men and wants to know who is Luis Aguado?  Aquado identifies himself and asks what is this all about?  Chacon tells him that he is under arrest, accused of being a Mason.  They remove Aguado and Father Agustin thanks Chacon. 

Emilio in bed with his wife Hilaria tosses and turns over the Aquado matter.  Hilaria wants to know what's bothering her husband.  She also says that she thinks he's hiding something from her.  So Emilio decides it's time she knew.  He says last night was supposedly to be the arrest of Candido, Baldomero and himself.  He tells Hilaria that he is a Mason and a member of the Katipunan.  In fact, he is the head of the Katipunan here in Cavite.  

Emilio and the others are having an initiation ceremony for more initiates in the Katipunan.  A Spanish soldier comes into the room and asks what's going on?  Emilio says they are having a trial.  These men are accused of gambling.  One of the associates slaps the three men, than another associate slaps the three men.  The guard accepts the ruse, but tells them that they better be careful when they go outside because of the bandits going around.   He says:  "They're called the Katipunan." 

The news from Manila is that many have been arrested on suspicion of being a member of the Katipunan.  In addition, the Supremo wants to start the revolution on August 29.  They will attack the gunpowder storage and armory in San Juan del Monte.  At the same time  those in Cavite will strike again at the Spanish. 

August 30, 1898.  Emilio and his group are waiting for a signal from Manila, but it's not coming.  What should they do?  Emilio says regardless of Manila they must fight to the death. 

Candido puts a knife to the throat of a man arriving from Manila.  The fellow gives his name and the code name.  Candido lets him go.  The man says to the Captain that there's trouble in Manila.  The Civil Guard raided the printing press of the Diario de Manila.  Many have been arrested.  And many of their men were killed when they attacked the armory of San Juan del Monte.  In short:  "The Katipunan no longer exists in Manila."

Emilio goes to the commander in Cavite and says he wants help from the Spanish navy to repel the Katipunan who will descend on Cavite.  The commander says he sent all the navy in Cavite to Manila yesterday.  So now Emilio is ready to strike.

Men with bows and arrows open fire on a convoy led by Lt. Chacon and Father Agustin headed to Manila to interrogate and torture a suspected Mason.  A number of soldiers are killed.  But the caravan is stopped and Emilio puts his sword up to the neck of the Father.  Then  the soldiers open up on Emilio's men and Augustin runs away. 

The Filipinos shout: "Kill the Spaniards!"   Emilio shouts back the now Cavite El Viejo is a free town!  But now they must rally the other towns of Cavite to join them in their fight.  Then they will need all the Provinces to get involved and rise up against the Spanish. 

Agustin goes to see the Governor General.  Lt. Chacon is already with the Governor General.  Augustin says Cavite has fallen to the rebels, but soon the whole province will fall.  The Governor General says that similar events are happening in Batangas, Bulacan, Laguna, Tarlac, Nueva Ecija, Pampanga and Manila.  In these provinces the military will take over the government to repel the rebellion.  And he wants Emilio Aguinaldo brought to him in chains. 

A military unit comes to attack Aguinaldo and his forces.  They have a cannon with them and kill quite a few of the rebels.  Aguinaldo is the only one left standing.  He takes blood from a dead body and puts it on his face and white uniform.  He then puts the dead body on top of him and lays still.  The Spanish unit just walks past the dead.  The Aguinaldo gets up and walks downstream in the shallow river until he reaches his people.  He then collapses on the river bank.  His men pick him up and take him to their base camp.  Good news awaits him there.  Don Jose Tagle of Imus says he and his men have taken Imus from the Spanish and now the entire town of Imus is at his service.  Agunaldo is happy at the news, but he fears that the Spanish unit that did his small group in is probably already on its way to take back the town of Imus. 

Emilio says:  "This is where we'll make up for what happened in Bacoor."  But first they must get some more recruits.  So they go out recruiting with a musical parade band. 

September 3, 1896.  The Spanish unit is on its way to Imus.  Lt. Chacon is now with them.  They dream of capturing the two rebel leaders:  Jose Tagle and Emilio Aguinaldo.  Surprise, the rebels ambush the Spanish unit.  And now it's the rebels who use cannon fire to their advantage.  The clash is a clear victory for the rebels. 

Lt. Chacon arrests Maximo Inocencio for treason and for sponsoring the banditry in Cavite El Viejo and Imus. 

Miong is introduced to Edilberto Evangelista.  The new man has brought illustrations and books on military strategy that he thinks will help them in their next battle. 

Maximo Inocencio, Luis Aguado, Eugenio Cabezas, Feliciano Cabuco, Agapito Conchu, Alfonso de Ocampo, Maximo Gregorio, Jose Lallana, Severino Lepidario, Victoriano Luciano, Francisco Osorio, Hugo Perez and Antonio San Agustin.  Lt. Chacon shouts out their names and then says that these rich men all supported the bandits under Emilio Aguinaldo.  He gives the order for the firing squad to fire and down goes all the rebel supporters.

November 9, 1896.  Binakayan, Cavite.  The Spanish use boats to make a landing at Binakayan.  They chase a small group of rebels until they find themselves in a trap.  Arrows rain down upon the Spanish soldiers and many are killed.  Other rebels throw spears at the soldiers and bring more men down.  Then rebel guns bring even more soldiers to their death.  The Spanish unit is massacred.

More Spanish troops arrive and the rebel forces meet near the beach.  Aguinaldo and Candido kill many of the soldiers.  Lt. Chacon kills quiet a few rebels.  Candido is wounded in his mid-section and he goes down with Miong at his side.  Lt. Chacon comes with two swords in his hands against Aguinaldo.  This gives him an advantage, but Aguinaldo wins the struggle by knifing Chacon multiple times. 

A man, Mr. Zulueta, comes to tell Miong that the Spaniards want to talk to him about making an armistice.  Miong says that Andres Bonifacio is the leader of the revolution.  He's the Supremo of the Highest Most Honorable Society of the Sons of the Motherland.  So the man and two nuns go to see Bonifacio.  Bonifacio says Mr. Zulueta insults him because Zulueta didn't even know that Bonifacio is the true leader of the revolution.  He tells them:  "Get out!"

Bonifacio comes to Cavite to see how Aguinaldo is doing with his new republic of Cavite.  At the dinner the speaker introduces the head of Magdiwang, Supreme Leader of the Katipunan, and king of the Tagalog people, Andres Bonifacio.  The leader gets up and says that it seems best to unify the Magdiwang and Magdalo groups.  One of the men asks why don't they set up a centralized revolutionary government?  Why not establish just one government?   The introducer of Bonifacio says they should just make Bonifacio the leaders of the new government.  Everybody respects him.  Another fellow, however, says that there was another important leader in the revolution.  The man supporting one government says that Dr. Jose Rizal should be their rightful leader.   Bonifacio says Dr. Rizal is imprisoned at Fort Santiago and is our honorary leader. 

On another day Miong says that Felix Cuenca and Crispulo Aguinaldo have gone ahead to Tejeros (in Cavite) to organize nominees from the Magdalo group.  Miong also asks that the two factions of Magdalo and Magdiwang should not be made into political parties.  News arrives that Spanish troops are marching towards Santol Pass and Salitran (south of Barcoor City and Imus City).  Miong tells his aide Daniel to oversee the Tejeros convention.  He things the army is that of Gen. Zaballa that will attack Dasmariñas.  He shouts that their own troops will be marching to Salitran.

Hacienda Tejeros, San Francisco de Malabon, Cavite, March 22, 1897.  At the conference to form a Philippine government, Daniel says that the President of the government will have to be formally elected, rather just given to Bonifacio.  A man nominates Bonifacio.  Daniel nominates Mr. Mariano Trias.  Another nominee is Mr. Emilio Aguinaldo.  The vote is held by the members of Katipunan.  The new President is Emilio Aguinaldo.  Meanwhile, Gen. Aquinaldo is fighting the Spanish.

In the Conference a man wants to appoint the Supreme Leader, Bonifacio, as vice president.  Daniel again objects that the office should be decided by election.  Bonifacio is nominated along with Mariano Alvarez and Mariano Trias.  Mariano Trias is elected as vice-president.  The Chief General is Artemio Ricarte.  War Minister is Emiliano Riego de Dios.  Interior Minister is Andres Bonifacio.  Daniel gets up to say that the interior minister must be someone highly educated and an expert in the law.  Bonifacio is not suited for the position.  Let's choose Jose del Rosario, a lawyer.  Bonifacio gets so mad that he pulls out his pistol and challenges Daniel to a duel.  The man has to be held back so he can't get at Daniel. 

Aquinaldo is told the good news and he thinks back to the fortune teller who said he will be king of a kingdom he will not rule.  Now he has to go to Hacienda Tejeros to take his oath of office along with his cabinet and other officials.  Aguinaldo says he can't leave the Battle of Santol Pass.  The enemy is too strong and it would be too risky for him to leave.  General Crispulo tells him that he will take over for him.  Aguinaldo tells the other general to make sure that the enemy doesn't win. 

Hacienda Recolectos, Santa Cruz de Molobon, Cavite, March 23, 1897.  Aguinaldo and the others take their oaths of office.  Gen. Ricarte is acting very peculiarly.  He says he has a headache and leaves.  

Gen. Ricarte turns back the reinforcements being send to Gen. Crispulo.  He says a battalion will be coming from Musang Pass to reinforce the fighting. 

Gen. Crispulo shouts where are his reinforcements?  Then he is shot down.  The enemy wins the battle.  The bad news is delivered to Aguinaldo, who asks why didn't our troops arrive?  Gen. Ricarte ordered them to turn back. 

Aguinaldo goes to the battlefield.  He sees so many of his men laid out in lines of corpses.  He is very upset at the heavy losses and passes out at the grave of one of the soldiers.  A young woman watches over him in his bed.  Later he learns that the young girl was just a part of his delirium.  Mion tells Major Macapagal to go inform Generals Del Pilar and Noriel to always be alert.   

Major Macapagal returns at night with the bad news that Bonifacio had him and his men locked up when they got to Hacienda Tejeros.  The Major was the only one who escaped. 

April 20, 1897.  Aguinaldo goes to find Bonifacio.  He overhears Bonifacio saying that Aguinaldo is going to over to the enemy.  Aguinaldo's presence is discovered which surprises the conspirators.  Bonifacio tells him to join them, but Aguinaldo declines.  He goes and sets the Major's men free from prison. 

Later Aguinaldo accepts the apologies of two of the men who believed the lies told about the President.  The President says there was a plan to have him captured that was planned by Bonifacio.  The plan was to be carried out by Gen. Ricarte.  The fear is that Bonifacio wants to rule the Philippines as the King of the Philippines.  The man should be arrested for treason. 

Bonifacio orders his men to burn down a collection of houses, because the owner told him that he did not have enough food to feed Bonifacio's men.

A note comes to Aguinaldo from Gen. Severino de las Alas.  It comes from the village of Indang.  The message is that Bonifacio burned down the village that refused to feed him and his people.  And now Aguinaldo orders the arrest of Bonifacio. 

Bonifacio refuses to surrender to Aguinaldo's men.  The messenger says he is sure the Supreme Leader's hideout is nearby.  As the troops go to the attack against Bonifacio, a sniper shoots a number of the soldiers.  Then the sniper is killed.  The sniper turns out to be Ciriaco Bonifacio.  The troops find Bonifacio's hideout and a skirmish begins.  Bonifacio puts up a good fight, but he gets slashed by a machete and then wounded by the pistol of the commander of the group. 

April 30, 1897. Bonifacio is accused of establishing his own revolutionary government. 

The brothers Andres and Procopio Bonifacio are found guilty.  Aguinaldo wants to transfer them to Pico de Loro.  He sends the letter to General Noriel.  Noriel tells the messenger that Andres Bonifacio will be sentenced tomorrow.  Aguinaldo makes it known that he doesn't want Bonifacio to be executed.  He wants him exiled to Pico de Loro.  Others object that this will make the revolutionary government look weak.  If Andres is left alive, the Spaniards could rescue him and Andres might divulge the government's plans.  Aguinaldo says to Del Pilar that he needs Bonifacio alive. 

The War Council on May 10, 1897 executes the Bonifacio brothers by firing squad.  Andres stops and wants the orders for Major Macapagal read aloud.  The Major does so and Procopio tries to escape.  He is shot down.  Andres runs to his brother, but the man is dead.  The Major tells Andres to escape.  Instead Andres grabs the Major's sword from him and pretends that he is going to hack up the troops.  The troops shoot him dead. 

Back to the present.  Aguinaldo says:  "One of the most painful decisions I've made, was signing the order sentencing the Bonifacio brothers to death.  But, according to all my advisors, and at that time in history, that decision was necessary. 

Flashback.  The Spanish troops are in Cavite.  Aquinaldo is asked why did he decide to move the central government to Bulacan?  The President answers that the Bulacan force there is very powerful under Gen. Natividad and Gen. Llanera of San Miguel. This will make it easier for the Tagalog to surround Manila.  Right now Aguinaldo is headed to the village of Biak na Bato in the mountainous area of San Miguel.   

An officer says their food supply is running out.    The men need more food and medicine.  Aguinaldo asks how about raiding the storehouses of the enemy in San Rafael in Bulacan? 

The raid is not very successful.  The officer got shot and they didn't get much in the way of supplies before they had to retreat.  The officer returns and tells Aguinaldo that they need more firearms for the men. 

A Mr. Paterno tells Aguinaldo that Governor General Primo de Rivera is scared of the rebel forces. But others know that Aguinaldo can't stay in Bulacan for long.  Paterno suggests they stop the fight and ask for amnesty for all revolutionaries.  Absolutely not!  The only path to be taken is the path to independence!

Captain Gregorio del Pilar visits Aguinaldo.   The Captain says he's come to offer to the revolution his small army. 

Gen. Noriel tells Aguinaldo that their forces only have a few bullets left.  And they are running out of food. 

Paterno brings three political prisoners released by the Spanish: Felix Ferrer, Isabelo Arcadio and Vicente Lucban, but he is still pushing armistice.  Then he reels off a long list of concessions the Spanish say they are willing to grant.  Aguinaldo says for 3 million pesos they might consider armistice. 

December 14,1897.  So the armistice is made.  The Filipinos will lay down their arms.  The Philippines will get 800,000 pesos in four installments and the following concessions:  the removal of the friars from their lands; a representative to the Spanish parliament; a justice system and the right accounting of taxes.

Morrison Hill, Hong Kong.  In Hong Kong, Benjamin San Luis introduces himself to Aguinaldo.  He then introduces to Aguinaldo, Rousenville Wildman, from the US Consulate in Hong Kong. At present, the United States and Spain are at war in Cuba.  The USA wants a free Cuba.  The Americans believe that Spain's power is weak in Asia and the Pacific so they will defeat Spain without too many problems.  They want to help the Filipinos to fight against the Spaniards.  The Americans will provide arms and money to the revolution.  What worries Aguinaldo is that the USA might have their own designs on the Philippines.  He tells the US Consulate Wildman that all they want is for the USA to recognize the sovereignty of the Philippines. 

Aguinaldo tells his comrades that they will be returning to the Philippines to continue the revolution.  The men applaud loudly for that idea. 

The Philippines gets a new flag that is largely red, white and blue with some yellow seal.  The Filipinos gets lots of guns and bullets.  Admiral Dewey devastates the Spanish fleet in Manila.  Manila surrenders.  Victory for the Americans after the war had ended.  The Filipinos now don the uniforms that the Spanish wore. 

Aguinaldo tells lawyer Apolinario Mabini that as president, he will declare Philippine independence soon.  The lawyer urges him to organize his cabinet first.  And also plan out the political system he wants before declaring independence.  Aquinaldo says frankly that he wants the lawyer to help him become a competent, wise and strong president. 

Cavite Viejo, province of Cavite, June 12, 1898.  The declaration of independence is declared to the people. 

Aguinaldo is worried about the Americans horning in on the Philippines.  He says the USA is saying now the they are the ally of the Philippines in seeking their independence.  Aquinaldo is told that the USA is going to pay for the Philippines' freedom from Spain.  The President of the Philippines is determined to make it clear to the Americans that they have to recognize the sovereignty of the Republic of the Philippines. 

Antonio Luna is appointed to represent a district.  Mr. Felipe comes to Aguinaldo and he introduces Antonio Luna to Felipe.  Luna excuses himself and Felipe asks who recommended Luna to Aguinaldao.  Miong says that in Hong Kong, Luna was recommended highly by Felipe Agoncillo.  Felipe says that Luna disclosed names to the Spanish about members of the Katipunan.  The man is not to be trusted.  He's a traitor. 

Hotel Continental, Paris, December 1898. Mr. Agoncillo  tries to be included in on the negotiations for a peace treaty between the USA and Spain.  The Frenchman in charge won't let him do that.  He suggests that Agoncillo take his case before the President or the Congress of the USA.

American soldiers are in the Philippines. 

Manila, February 4, 1899.  There is a bit of a firefight after the Americans shoot down two Filipino guards walking away from them.  This gets back quickly to Aguinaldo.  He says they should tell Commissioner Otis that the Philippines are going to act aggressively to the Americans.  The country sees America as its ally.  Luna is in the meeting and he speaks up to say he doesn't regard the USA as a friend, because they want to make the Philippines a colony.  For instance, the commissioner is called the "governor".  (Mr. Filipi listens intently to Luna's remarks and it looks like he does like what he hears.)  Aguinaldo tells his generals to surround Manila and make sure no Americans leave that city.

Arlington Hotel, Arkansas, February 1899.  The US Gen. Green won't approve of Agoncillo presenting his ideas to America.  Of course, Agoncillo is very upset about this. 

Gen. Luna sends his fifth message for a General to come see him.  The General says that this will be his fifth rejection of the message.  Then the messenger says (lies) that this actually was sent by Aguinaldo.   So the General goes to see Luna. 

Gen. Luna slugs the General in the mid-section and then tells his men to lockup the General.  A messenger arrives saying that Gen. Del Pilar is asking for reinforcements in Bulacan.  The Americans are about to enter Bagbag.  Gen. Luna is furious saying that the General had this message sent so he could return to his duty post.  The General says no.  Then the General had somebody else send the message. The General says no.  Luna walks away from the General.

Bagbag, Calumpit, Bulacan.  April 27, 1899. The Americans open up on the Filipinos with their cannon.  Then the American start walking toward the Filipinos while shooting their weapons.  As they get close, they charge the Filipino defenses.  The Filipinos start retreating. 

Miong's lawyer says the USA, through Secretary John Hay of the Sherman Commission, is proposing to grant the Philippines autonomy.  They will create a council made up of Filipinos.  But the Philippines would still be under an American Governor General.  Felipe says it may be a good idea to accept the American offer so they can prevent another war.  Luna speaks up saying that this will just enslave the Filipino people again.  Felipe counters by asking Luna to just go ahead and surrender himself because he has lost all his battles so far.  "You put your personal fight over a battle."   Luna gets so mad that he gets up out of his seat and really slaps the old man Felipe really hard.  All the military people, including Aguinaldo, jump up and tell Luna to stop that.  Luna leaves the room.

The lawyer speaks up to say that Luna is a thorn in their sides.  The man is over-stepping his authority and is giving orders that are meant to be decided by civilian politicians only.  For instance, he said that every male of age is to join the Army and they must fight in every battle.  If they don't, they will be shot. 

Luna shoots a civilian because the man said he could only spare a half a sack of rice. A messenger hands Luna a note.  He reads it and says he's going on a train headed for Cabanatuan. 

Luna arrives to find only Felipe in the meeting area.  Luna calls the man a traitor again.  He really gets angry when he learns that Aguinaldo has already left the meeting.  Someone outside fires a shot.  Luna rushes outside to find out who fired that shot?  The man who fired the shot is a soldier that Luna had dismissed from his outfit.  Luna really reads the riot act to the man, who responds to Luna's yelling by hitting him with his machete.  Luna falls to the ground and the man still comes after Luna, hacking at him.  Lunca struggles to try to get to his pistol.  Other soldiers are hacking at him with their machetes.  Luna fires a shot, but now he is really being hacked by the machetes. 

Back to the present.  Aguinaldo says that many people say that he ordered the death of Luna, but he did not.  Perhaps he should have opened an investigation into the matter, but he did not. 

Arthur MacArthur is now the Governor General.  He says this Gen. Aguinaldo is not so easy to pacify. The USA is annexing the Philippines.  He wants all the insurgents to pledge allegiance to the US flat, and this especially so for Aguinaldo.

Aguinaldo tells the soldiers to go up into the mountains and fight in platoon units against the Americans.  Aguinaldo makes his way up to Tirad Pass where they are welcomed by a village.  In the night Aguinaldo is told that American soldiers are in the area.  Aguinaldo says they have to leave the area immediately.  Gen. Del Pilar says he is going to stop the Americans at the base of Tirad Pass. 

The battle starts.  A native Indian shows the Americans a way to get behind the Filipino forces.  Gen. Del Pilar is shot and killed. 

Aguinaldo moves on to a native village with their primitive ways.  Some of the natives recognize Aguinaldo and they open their arms to him.  He goes on to Palanan where again he is welcomed.  Aguinaldo now sends letters to three of his generals.  The messenger with a boy on his back has to work his way around the American troops.  The boy is sick and the messenger sneaks over to the American camp to get a first aide kit from them.  The Americans come up behind him.  The messages are read by the Americans and now they hatch a plan to go after Aguinaldo.  This was the ruse from the start of the movie where the fakers say they killed five American soldiers and captured five American soldiers.

Back to the present.  Aguinaldo has been taken captive.  Aguinaldo is put out to sea on the USS Vicksburg.  Aguinaldo cries about being a captive now of the Americans. 

Aguinaldo meets Arthur MacArthur who says it's an honor to meet Aquinaldo.   Many photos are taken of Aguinaldo with or without some of his aides.  He gets to see his wife and children.  The wife is very sick.  He lives out his life in a village dominated by Americans. 

Aguinaldo meets Agoncillo and his wife and the wife's niece, Maria.  Agunaldo asks if she is married?  No.

Manila.  July 14, 1930.  Aguinaldo marries Maria. 

Aguinaldo talks with Maria about the Americans wanting to offer the Philippines their freedom.  He says he will run for the office of the president of the commonwealth.  Aquinaldo runs but he doesn't win. 

The Japanese attack the Philippines, December 8, 1941

The Philippines gets their independence from the USA after 48 years. 

1962.  The Filipinos change their Independence Day from July 4 to June 12 in line with the first Philippine declaration of independence. 

Aguinaldo finishes his book and gets it published as Memoirs of the Revolution

The third love that Aguinaldo couldn't marry was his motherland.

He died February 6, 1964 at the age of 94.  During the elections at Hacienda Tejas, there were only 8 representatives from the Magdalo council as most of it members were fighting in Salitran, Dasmariñas, Cavite.  Among those elected, only Aguinaldo came from the Magdalo council.  All the other officers were from Magdiwang.



Good, detailed coverage of the great Philippine leader Emilio Aquinaldo.  His entire life is covered starting with his fight against the colonialism of Spain; his call for an independent Philippines, the construction of a government; the fight against the colonialism of the Americans; the fight against Japanese occupation of the Philippines and the attainment of independence from the USA.  A lot of very important Philippine history is covered.  Aquinaldo certainly deserves to be seen as a hero by the Filipinos.  He constantly worked for the goal of complete Philippine independence and saw his dream come to fruition. 

Patrick Louis Cooney, Ph. D. 



From Wikipedia:

 Katipunan  -- a Philippine revolutionary organization founded by Filipino rebels in Manila in 1892, with the aim to gain independence from Spain.

Magdalo group  --  a political faction of the Philippine revolutionary group Katipunan during the 19th century.  The name came from Mary Magdalene.  It was officially led by Baldomero Aguinaldo, but his cousin Emilio Aguinaldo (whose own Katipunan codename was "Magdalo") was its most famous leader.

Madiwang group  --  a chapter of the Katipunan started by Mariano Álvarez, related by marriage to Andrés Bonifacio, the leader of the Katipunan.

Both the Magdiwang and the Magdalo were the two major Katipunan factions in Cavite, with the Magdiwang having control over a larger number of towns and municipalities.



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