Jian hu nu xia Qui Jin (The Woman Knight of Mirror Lake) (2011)

 

 

 

 

Director:     Herman Yau.

Starring:     Yi Huang (Qiu Jin), Yu-Hang To (Xu Xilin), Rose Chan (Fusheng), Pat Ha (Wu Zhiying), Anthony Wong Chau-Sang (Li Zhongyue), Kevin Cheng (Wang Tingjun), Xin Xin Xiong (Ao Feng), Siu-Ming Lau (Manchu official), Suet Lam (Gui Fu), You-Nam Wong (Chen Boping), Tien You Chui (Chen Tianhua).

a woman grows up questioning the unequal treatment of the sexes, fights for the right for an equal education and who later fights against the corrupt Manchu government to her death
 

 

Spoiler Warning:

"In 1840, the Opium War broke out, and China was defeated.  In 1842, the Qing Dynasty of China signed the first of the unequal treaties with the United Kingdom --  the Treaty of Nanking.  With the cession of lands, unfair foreign trade terms and substantial reparations, the Chinese people fell into a long-term dark era."

"Xuan Ting Street Junction."  In the rain, the doctor friend of Qiu Jin cries upon seeing the execution platform.

"July 6, 1907.  Xu Xilin, who tried to mobilize an uprising, failed to assassinate the Anhui governor in the Anging Police Academy."  The now bound Xu Xilin is on the floor with two soldiers with swords standing over him.  The Governor of Anhui shouts at him:  "Confess!  What's your motivation behind the assassination?"  Xu Xilin says:  "En Ming.  He deserves to die."  The Governor replies:  "Lord En Ming was only slightly injured; you'll lose your life in vain."  He then adds that they will tear the heart out of Xu Xilin.  The tied-up fellow says En Ming must be dead.  Otherwise, why would the Governor want to tear Xu Xilin's heart out.

"Office of the Zhejiang governor, Hangzhou."  The Shaoxing Prefect, Gui Fu, report to His Lordship.  The city has impounded all of Xu Xilin's property and belongings.  And the Da Tong College Xu founded is the headquarters of the Restoration Society.  His Lordship says that in the capacity of the court, he orders Gui Fu and Captain Ao Feng together to arrest the insurgents at Da Tong at once. 

"Zhaoxing, Zhejiang Province."  Here comes Gui Fu and the Captain with lots of men.  Qiu Jin, dressed in a Western male's business suit, is teaching her students how to fire a pistol.  A messenger rushes up to tell Qui Jin:  "Xu Xilin has sacrificed his life for the cause!  Madam Qiu, the imperial soldiers are coming.  Get out of here, quick!"  She says that Xu left this school in her care and she's not going to leave.  She now tells her female assistant, Fusheng, to take the students out of here.  Then she is to go to Madam's place and destroy all the evidence.  After that Fusheng is to tell the Madam's parents they must hide to evade trouble.  The students say they won't go without Qiu Jin.  Fusheng starts crying and protesting.  She doesn't want to leave, but Qiu Jin asks her if this is loyalty she is displaying here?  Fusheng quiets down. 

The male students in uniforms start closing all the doors to the school.  The order is shouted out to Qiu Jin to come outside, but Qiu Jin is too busy handing out rifles to her students to obey any orders. The order for the troops is to break the door down!  They use a huge log to bash the door in.  Meanwhile, on the other side of the door are the students ready for a fight.  When the troops break through the door, the students start shooting them down.  They retreat back outside.  This time the soldiers with rifles will go in first.  The Captain goes in first shooting with his pistol.  Then he tells his troops to follow him.  They pour through the door.

As the troops reach near the center of the plaza, students and Qui Jin jump out at the troops and start killing them with their swords.  More doors are busted open and in comes more troops, firing as they go.  Male student Taichu is badly wounded.

Flashback.  Qui Jin's professor tells her that it took 80 years to accomplish the French Revolution and lots of blood was shed.  "Our revolution is still at the initial stage."  And they must give of their blood too for the revolution in China. 

1881.  As is the tradition, Qui Jin's mother supervises as the foot-binding lady wraps her daughter's feet to keep them small.  Qui Jin protests against the wrapping because it's too tight.  She jumps up from where she was sitting and runs away from the two women.  She asks why her brothers can go to school without having their feet bound and yet she can't go to school and her feet are to bound?  She asks her father why can boys do things when the girls are not supposed to do things. 

The Russian Treaty of Saint Petersburg, 1881.  Sino-Russian Treaty of Saint Petersburg, 1881.  Sino-Japanese Treaty of Tientain, 1885.  Sino-French Treaty of Peace, 1885.Sino-British extended agreements of the Cheefoo Convention, 1885.  Sino-British Treaty of Burma, 1886.  Sino-Portuguese Treaty of Peking, 1887.  Sino-British Convention Respecting Tibet, 1890. 

Qui Jin learns how to read and write and do arithmetic.  She also learns how to ride a horse, martial arts and swordsmanship.  She grows into a young lady.  After an afternoon of riding, Qui Jin, her brother and cousins stop at a restaurant for something to eat and drink. She sees a young woman with a baby on her back serving as a waitress being chained to a wood post with iron chains.  Qui Jin speaks up and says how cruel her parents must be to her to allow this.  One of the men say that the waitress is a child bride. The guys start teasing Jin.  They say she will have to conform to the rules when she gets married.  Jin doesn't like hearing that.

The waitress trips over her chains and gets scolded by the female owner of the place.  The woman starts hitting the deaf mute with a ladle.  Jin is very upset about this and she goes over and threatens to hit the woman if she hits the poor girl again.  That brings a protest from the husband and Jin pins his head up against a table top.  The group now decides to buy the deaf mute's freedom.  Then they take the girl home with them.  Her name is Fusheng.  Jin teaches her how to read. 

Back to the present.  The troops push through a group of students trying to get to Qui Jin. Meanwhile, she burns some important papers in her office.

Flashback.  Qui Jin is to marry the richest man in Xiangtan.  Jin asks her mother if she could meet her-husband-to-be first?  Mother replies:  "No need to worry.  We'll take care of it for you."

So Jin marries.  On the wedding night the new husband gets drunk.  He tells his friend that his wife is known for her literary talent in their region.  Jin has to wait for her husband for a long time before he returns home.

Back to the present.  The Captain bursts into Jin's office and fires his pistol at her.  Her suit jacket is torn by the bullet.  The Captain sees documents burning and he tries to put the fire out.  Jin tries to stop him.  They have a long sword fight and she holds him off.  He tires of this and sends his men in after her.  Jin out fights a number of the troops, but there are way too many of them for her to win.  They pin her against a wall with their long spears.  The Captain calls her a stupid bitch for stirring the people to revolt, instead of staying at home with her family as a good wife and mother should.  The Captain is about to cut her head off, when a high official intervenes.  The Captain asks who is this man that protects the woman rebel?  The official says he is Li Zhongyue, the Magistrate of Shanyin.  He says the woman will have to have a trial. 

The judge at trial refers to Qiu Jin as Mrs. Wang.  She then asks why has she been detained?  Attempting to overthrow the government.  He wants to know why Jin wrote the confrontational essays before him?  She says she's for a gender revolution, not a political one.  The Captain wants Qiu Jin tortured with thumbscrews, but the Magistrate says that Qiu Jin is an educated woman and torturing her is not justified.  The judge, however, does threaten to use the thumbscrews on Jin.

Flashback.  "June 21, 1900.  The Qing government declared war against eleven nations in the name of Emperor Guangxu."  Qiu Jin wonders when the wars will be ending.  The wars are between China and the foreigners.  She resents that because she's a woman, she is deprived of the right to serve her country.  She remembers back to the birth of her first child.  The father is upset that the baby is a girl.  Therefore, he will first finish his set in a game he's playing with friends before going to see his daughter.

Back to the present.  The Magistrate talks with the Judge.  He says he's heard that Jin is the daughter of the Fujian governor, Qiu Shounan.  The Judge replies that the Governor had returned to his home in Shaoxing and there died of some illness. 

Flashback.  Jin's father complains about how much land China has lost to the foreigners. As a little girl, Jin tells her father that eventually, they will reclaim all the lost lands.  Jin also remembers that she scolded her husband for not wanting to do something for China in the country's time of need.  Her husband replies:  "I didn't lose the Opium Wars.  I didn't burn down the Yuanming Palace.  I didn't encourage Empress Dowager Cixi to irritate the foreign devils."  Jin says the problem is that her husband has done nothing!  The husband says if she wants him to, he can buy a government post in Beijing and help China that way. 

Beijing, 1902.  The family moves to Beijing.  Bejing is filled with starving people.  The Wang son, Yuande, tells his dad that Beijing is filthy and rundown.   His mother tells Yuande that China was defeated in the wars.  The Westerners have taken possession of our land and there are lots of jobless and homeless people on the streets.  Just then their palanquin is besieged by hungry and starving people. 

Troops come to rescue the Wang family.  They push the people out of the way. Jin sees a soldier being too rough on a person, so she leaves the palanquin to tell the man to stop it!  He attacks her, but she defends herself very well and knocks him down.  Now a whole group of soldiers attack her.  She holds them off masterfully.  A Westerner now shoots his pistol and that stops the fighting.  He walks toward Jin, but she puts him down and takes the pistol away from him.  She then criticizes the troops:  "You beat people just just to clear the way for this Westerner? Ridiculous!"  The Westerner's son shouts out to Jin:  "Don't kill my father!"  The Westerner is picked up and put into a rickshaw and he and his family move out of the area. 

Back to the present.  Jin continues to give very evasive answers.  So now the thumbscrews are used on her hands.  She screams in pain.  The Magistrate tells the torturers to stop and then he tells Jin that she better talk.  She responds:  "You are all so stupid!  After such a long interrogation, the identity of my accomplice is becoming evident."  Who is that? Master Gui Fu.  That just infuriates the judge and he sends her back to her cell.  Now Magistrate Li will take over her interrogation. If Jin refuses to confess, she will be tortured. 

Flashback.  Jin is upset with her husband because on their second day in Beijing he will not be home for supper.  During the night, Jin has to run to find a medical doctor.  She finds a female doctor.  The woman examines Jin's daughter and says the girl has the measles.  The doctor says she will watch over the little girl because measles is very infectious.  The two women become very friendly with each other and the older woman doctor tells Jin to call her Zhiying.  The doctor says she knows Qiu Jin's poems and says they are very well written. 

Zhiying asks Jin if she knows Xu Xilin?  He is a friend of her husband's and the fellow is currently studying in Japan. 

One day the doctor comes over to Jin and says they are having a women's discussion group to exchange ideas.  She wants Jin to join them.  Jin is very willing to attend.  There Jin meets Mrs. Ouyang and then Mrs. Hattori, who has been teaching in Japan for years.  Jin asks Mrs. Hattori how is it possible to discuss women's studies in Japan?  The teacher says that women's studies have been around since the Meiji Restoration.  "Men an women are born equal, and should enjoy equal rights."  Jin says in China the women are totally suppressed and she would like to do something that would shock the men. 

Jin waits for her husband, but he is busy being entertaining with his buddies and women.  She puts on men's clothing and ties her hair tightly in a bun in the back.  When her friend the doctor sees her she is shocked at Jin's appearance.  The doctor and Jin go to the same place where the husbands like to go.  In male clothing, Jin definitely gets noticed. 

When Jin is back with her husband at home he slaps her, telling her:  "You don't behave like a decent woman!"  He raises his hand against her, and she pushes him down.  He gets up and asks why did Jin have to wear bizarre clothing in public?  She has embarrassed him.  Jin strikes back by saying that her husband is the embarrassment.  He secured a contemptible government job and now frequents brothels.  She says, in fact, that the entire current government is filed with incompetent, futile officials like Wang.  Wang falls into a chair and sighs:  "Even my wife looks down on me!"  He says he can't help it that he was born into a wealthy family.  Wang adds that he's not able to become somebody important. 

He gets so mad at his wife that he starts ripping up her recently written poems.  He asks her how are these poems going to help China?  Wang says she doesn't think much of him, but he doesn't think much of her either.  Jin becomes very sad and walks away from her husband.  She goes to see the doctor and cries on her shoulder, literally. 

Back to the present.  Magistrate Li speaks with Jin over some tea.  Jin asks him if this is a truce?  Yes.  He says when he taught his two sons to read, he used Jin's poems.  Jin says she won't make this hard for Master Li.  She asks for pen and paper to write out a statement for the judge. 

Flashback.  Wang goes to see the doctor.  She tells him that he came one day too late.  Jin has left for Japan.  That really shocks husband Wang. 

"Tokyo, Japan, 1904."  Jin writes to the doctor a thank you letter for the older woman supporting her rather bold decision.  She has come to Japan all alone.  Fusheng is at home in Japan with the doctor.  Her children are with her husband Wang. 

In Tokyo, she starts the Common Language Journal.  She uses simple language to promote Women's Studies and Women's Rights.  Jin joins the Mutual Love Society, where she meets a lot of women who share common beliefs.  Chen Fen is the Chair of the Society.  Jin does some public speaking condemning the practice of binding the feet of girls from five years of age. One of the young men in the audience gives Jin a standing ovation for her speech. 

Xu Xilin takes a professionl photograph of Qiu Jin.  He tells Jin that her hands don't look natural in the pose, so Jin goes into her pocketbook, pulls out a knife and poses with the knife.  Xu Xilin already knows who Jin is.  He refers to her as the Woman Knight of Mirror Lake.

Back to the present.  Jin is trying to write her statement for the judge, but her hands are still weak from the thumbscrews used on her.  Magistrate Li helps put the paint brush in her right hand.  It's hard for her to write, but she writes.

"Office of the Zhejiang governor."  It is reported that Jin didn't disclose the list of collaborators, but she did confess that she was involved in the Restoration Society.  The Judge says:  "Convicted of conspiring with insurgents and sedition.  Your Honor, please sentence the accused to death."  His Honor agrees. 

Flashback.  Xu Xilin teaches students and Jin is one of those students.  Sometimes the group from the Mutual Love Society would go and have dinner together.  One of the guys, Hu Donglin, is flirting with one of the young women.  He is warned about this, but just gets himself in more trouble by gender incorrect language.  They throw him out of the restaurant. 

Back to the present.   The Judge complains to Magistrate Li that Jin only wrote him a poem of seven words.  He adds that Li is protecting Jin.  The Judge then shows him the Governor's order that Jin be immediately executed.  It will be a beheading.  Li is shocked.  He protests that the death sentence for women is hanging.  The Judge shuts him up by asking Li if he is going to disobey the order of a superior? 

Flashback.  There is a notice on the board saying:  "No political societies, no political comments.  Correspondences must be censored.  Must abide by and obey the Qing rules and laws."  Xu Xilin puts up his right hand and fist and shouts:  "No to Qing student admission rules!"  The students take this chant to the streets.  There are around 200 or so protestors.  Jin leads the march. 

The protestors stop in their tracks when they run up against an almost equal number of policemen with batons.  After some hesitation, Jin lifts her megaphone to her mouth and chants the slogan, while she walks toward the police.  The students follow her.  Then the police charge the students, hitting them with their batons.  Some of the students did well in defending themselves, but there were just too many policemen for the students to prevail. The police bloodied a lot of students. 

The Asahi Shimbun Editorial today just ridicules the student demonstrators.  The editorial says the students are a bunch of good-for-nothing scoundrels.  They especially criticize the Chinese students.  One of the Chinese students gets a letter from his father criticizing him and the young man throws himself off a cliff onto the rocks below. 

The Chinese students who did not demonstrate confront Jin asking her who the hell does she think she is representing all the Chinese students?  Jin replies:  "This is Mr. Chen Tianhua's memorial service."  Xu adds to this:  "Would all of you either pay your respects or leave immediately?"  The angry students don't back down, but say they would never go back to China with Qui Jin.  Jin replies:  "The Japanese government has deprived us of the right of freedom and democracy.  We can no longer submit to it."  She says that most of the anti-demonstrators are dependent upon the government's sponsorship.  So, each student can decide for himself/herself whether to go or stay.  "But if you betray and oppress out countrymen, I will kill you!"  To emphasize her point she pulls out her knife and drives it into a table top.

Back to the present.  Magistrate Li says he cannot save Jin from execution.  He is only a lower official.  But he will do what he can for her.  Jin wants two things:  1) proper attire upon execution; no grimy people near her; and no public display of her head; and 2) to write a poem to bid farewell to the world. 

Flashback.  Jin tells Xu Xilin that she misses home.  "I also know when to go home."  Jin often has the same dream that occurs to her frequently.

Dream sequence. Qiu's residence. Jin is back home.  Her mother is worried about her political activity back in Japan.  She asks if Jin is a revolutionary?

Wang's residence.  Jin visits the Wang residence.  Fusheng sees Jin first and points to her.  Her two children don't recognize her, but her husband does.  He gets up.  He is happy to see her.  They take her over to the children.  The little girl Guifen is shy and runs to Fusheng.  And the little boy Yuande runs behind his father.  This upsets Jin.  She tells her husband that she is deep in debt.  He says he will pay her debt. 

The family goes to see a puppet show with the kids.  End of dream sequence.

Jin tells Xu that just her and her child being well fed is not sufficient.  "I vow to try and make sure the mothers and children of the whole wide world are fed and clothed."  She goes on to say:  "One Empress Dowager enjoys her pleasure at the expense of one whole nation."

Xu now invites Jin to become a member of the Restoration Society.  They will return to China and plan the revolution. 

"Liuyang, Hunan Province, December, 1906."  The revolutionaries assassinate an official and then kill a lot of the guards.  The guards kill quite a few rebels too.  A woman and a man are shot multiple times by the reinforcement guards.  They die. 

"Zhejiang, Shaoxing." Xu asks Jin: "Did Liu Daoyi and Chen Fen's families go to identify and collect their bodies." Jin says no, because the parents were afraid of being implicated.  And now the central government is trying to capture the rebels along the Yangtze River.  Xu remarks that they are now in a race with time to start the insurrection.  He also says that he bought himself a government post in Anhui, and will leave Shaoxing tomorrow.  The Empress Dowager has appointed her crony En Ming as the Governor of Anhui to bring about reforms.  But, the Dowager's true intent is to capture the rebels.  Xu intends to assassinate the new Governor.  So, since he will be very busy, he wants Jin to take charge of the Da Tong school.  The school is the headquarters of the Restoration Society to nurture true revolutionaries.  Jin agrees to take over the running of the school. 

Many of the conservatives are upset that a woman has been put in charge of the Da Tong school.  Magistrate Li for one thinks Jin will do a good job as head of the school.

Two top officials, Master Gui Fu and Magistrate Li, visit Jin and the school.  One of the men says that Jin certainly has his full support.  The two officials grant Jin permission to buy rifles for the school for training.  This makes Jin very happy.  She tells the two men:  "Graduates from our College will join the army."

And now guess who walks back into Jin's life?  It's none other than the disagreeable Hu Donglin, who is now the Director of the Shaoxing Education Bureau.  He greets Master Gui Fu and then says hello to Jin.  Jin also knows Mrs. Hu.  She was the woman Hu Donglin was flirting with when he was thrown out of the Mutual Love Society dinner in the restaurant in Japan.  In private, Jin tells Mrs. Hu that she's disappointed to see the woman become the concubine of Hu Donglin.  The wife replies:  "I'm sorry; I had no other option."  Jin doesn't believe that excuse, but Mrs. Hu begs Jin not to be angry with her.  Jin softens up a bit and tells her that Mrs. Hu need apologize to no one, except herself.  They hug each other. 

Back to the present.  It's time for the execution.  The condemned woman is bound tight with lots of rope around her arms and mid-section.  She asks Magistrate Li if she can see if anybody has come to bid her farewell?  She looks around. 

Flashback.  Jin oversees another training practice.  Her old pal the doctor comes to the school to talk to Jin.  The doctor has brought Fusheng with her.  Jin is very happy to see them.  The doctor has brought a donation for Jin to do with it whatever she wishes.  Jin thanks her and then tells the doctor that she has been having a feeling that she is not going to be around much longer.  If something happens to her, she asks the doctor to bury her body at Xileng Bridge in Hangzhou. 

Xu is given a list of members of the Restoration Society.  He asks how the list was procured, but no one will say.  Now Xu is told to go round up the rebels whose names are on the list.

Xu tells Qiu Jin about the list.  His own name (Bright Man) is on the list.  He tells Jin:  "The exposure of this list has threatened our safety."  So, he has come here to set a date to stage the uprising.  En Ming will attend the Commencement of the Anging Police Academy next month. Xu wants to kill En Ming as well as kill the officials around him.  Jin says she will mobilize an uprising in Shaoxing on the same day.  Xu adds that then they will join hands to attack Nanjing. 

A letter comes from En Ming to Xu.  En Ming wants to re-schedule the Commencement earlier.  In fact, he wants it tomorrow.  So tomorrow they will strike at En Ming.  They won't have time to inform Jin of the changes.  And now, they can only count on the police cadets.  Once they have killed the Governor, says Xu, everything should be under control. 

"Anqing Police Academy."  The Governor arrives.  He is supposed to go speak with the cadets outside in the rain, but the Governor doesn't want to go out into the rain.  Xu is now thinking they might have to attack the Governor right in the room where he now is. 

It stops raining, finally.  Xu's assistant roles sticks of dynamite in a bundle onto the stage where the Governor is seated.  The dynamite bundle rolls too far and it is spotted.  One of the men on the stage kicks the dynamite off onto the parade ground.  Xu pulls out two pistols and opens fire on the Governor and the other officials.  The rebellion has started.  The cadets fight with the police, who are equipped with long spears.  Xu's assistant shoots the Governor three times or more in the back.  The cadets grab their rifles from the rifle stacks and start firing away.  Xu and the Captain battle each other with their martial arts.  They are both expert fighters, but it seems the Captain is just a little better. 

The police bring up a cannon and start blasting away with it.  This brings mass confusion and Xu and the Captain are separated from each other.  Now police on horseback come flying in shooting down the cadets.  Xu tells what's left of his cadets to get out of here.  He himself gets on a horse, picks up his assistant Boping, and starts riding away. The Captain grabs a rifle  and shoots Boping in the back.  He falls off the horse and onto the ground.  The cannon is now fired at Xu and he is knocked off his horse and hits the ground hard.  Boping struggles to get to the dynamite that never exploded.  He grabs it. lights the fuse and then, after being hit many times by rifle fire, he throws the dynamite at the Captain.  The Captain is blown into the air by the blast.  Boping dies. 

There are very few rebels left alive.  And now the police focus in on Xu, who knocks down lots of policemen, but is thrown up against a wall by a flying kick from the Captain.  Now Xu finally passes out and falls to the ground.

Now Xu is brought before the Governor of Anhui as was shown earlier in the film.  Then Jin is informed that the police are coming for her, as was shown.  Some of the students and staff run away and are pursued by the police.  Some get away.  Jin is captured. 

Back to the present.  Jin looks around to see if any friends are here.  Magistrate Li gives the signal, and a man pulls Jin's pig tail out of the way and the executioner chops her head off (not shown). 

Magistrate Li says:  "Although I didn't kill her with my own hands . . .  "  He then hangs himself.

"After Qiu Jin was executed, Li Zhongyue, who was distressed, and in the depths of despair, had noting to live for.  He hanged himself on October 29, 1907."

"Gui Fu, afraid of being eliminated by the Restoration Society, fled from Zhejiang Province.  After the success of the 1911 Revolution, he adopted a new name and lived a reclusive life."

 

 

Good movie about a Chinese heroine.  Compare the Wikipedia history to the movie and it is different.  There is no mention in the movie about her being divorced.  That's a big change for the movie to make. They also drop the abusive qualities of the husband that made Jin a very unhappy wife.  There was no mention of Xu Xilin being Jin's cousin.  I enjoyed the movie.  There's a lot of martial arts fighting in the movie which should please action lovers.  The woman was a true revolutionary and that was hard to be for a woman in traditional China.  She has to be admired for her fight for a democracy and a republic in China.  Yi Huang (as Qiu Jin) was very good.

 

Patrick Louis Cooney, Ph. D. 

 


Historical Background:

Qiu Jin --  was a Chinese revolutionary, feminist and writer. She was executed after a failed uprising against the Qing Dynasty. She is a national heroine in China.

 

1875 (November 8)  --   birth of Qiu Jin in Xiamen, Fujian.  She grew up in her ancestral home, Shanyin Village, Shaoxing, Zhejiang.  [Zhejiang is an eastern coastal province of China, named for the zigzagging river that was the old name of the Qiantang River, which passes through Hangzhou, the provincial capital.  It borders borders Jiangsu province and Shanghai municipality to the north.

At the age of 19, she married Wang Tingjun.  The man was wealthy, but Qiu Jin was very unhappy in her marriage. 

1903 --  Qiu Jin moved with her husband to Beijing where he had purchased an official post.  Also, she left her husband in this year.  She left for Japan.

1904  --  she studied in Japan, leaving her two children behind. She was fond of martial arts.  She wore Western male dress and was known for her left-wing ideology. She joined the Triads, who advocated the overthrow of the Qing Dynasty and restoration of Han Chinese governance.  She joined the anti-Qing societies Guangfuhui, led by Cai Yuanpei, and the Tokyo-based Tongmenghui led by Chinese leader Sun Yat-sen.

1905  --  She returned to China.  Qiu started publishing a women's magazine in which she encouraged women to gain financial independence through education and training in various professions.  She opposed the tradition of binding women's feet at the age of five. 

She and her male cousin Xu Xilin worked together to unite many secret revolutionary societies to work together for the overthrow of the Qing Dynasty.

1906  -- she founded a radical women's journal with another female poet, Xu Zihua, in Shanghai.

1907  --  she became head of the Datong school in Shaoxing, a school for the military training of revolutionaries.

1907 (July 6)  --  Xu Xilin was caught by the authorities, confessed his radical activities and was executed.  Six days later Qin Jin was arrested.  She was publicly beheaded in her home village, Shanyin, at the age of 31.  She is now buried beside West Lake in Hangzhou.

(Sources:  Wikipedia; and KeriLynn Engel, Qiu Jin, Chinese feminist & revolutionary martyr", http://www.amazingwomeninhistory.com/qiu-jin-chinese-feminist-revolutionary .

 

 

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